The 2006 IBC references for the 2005 edition of the standard Minimum Design Loads for buildings and other Structures prepared by the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE, 2005) for its seismic provisions. Depending on the production method, laminated glass is classified in the below categories: Poly Vinyl Butyral or PVB laminated glass is produced using heat and pressure to sandwich a thin layer of PVB between layers of glass. Tempered glass or toughened glass is formed by heating annealed glass in order to develop opposite stresses on its surfaces. Glass makes buildings look great from the outside. There are several types of laminated glasses manufactured using different types of glass and interlayers which produce different results when broken. If float glass is broken it will break into very sharp, hazardous pieces of glass. Clear glass is a kind of float glass which offers extreme transparency and clarity. The treatment can be applied to provide different levels of translucence, either uniformly over the entire surface or in selected areas creating decorative patterns. Architectural glass includes special types of glass used for building design and construction applications such as windows and doors. While there are many different ways in which glass can be categorized, here we will focus upon the various industries or verticals where glass applications are prevalent. With heat-strengthened glass, the cooling process is slower, which results in lower compression strength. On occasion, both rollers can carry a pattern. The elaborate patterns found on figured (or 'Cathedral') rolled-plate glass are produced in a similar fashion to the rolled plate glass process except that the plate is cast between two rollers, one of which carries a pattern. Since glass is a unique material with unique optical properties, it is hugely popular in the automotive and architectural industry. Laminated glass that is made up of annealed glass is normally used when safety is a concern, but tempering is not an option. Evidence for this has been discovered in the ruins of the Indus Valley Civilization. were manufactured. These buildings and requirements can be of the following nature: Glass applications also differ for interior and exterior of a building. The task of holding the panes apart is performed by a grid of spacers, which typically consist of small stainless steel discs that are placed around 20 mm apart. Low-iron/ Extra Clear Glass Float glass replaced this process. The glass is then annealed in a lehr. Glass coated with a low-emissivity substance can reflect radiant infrared energy, encouraging radiant heat to remain on the same side of the glass from which it originated, while letting visible light pass. Fully-tempered safety glass is often used for other applications where safety is desirable, because of its break pattern or when significant additional strength is needed to resist wind pressure, thermal stress or both.
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